Levant women

Levant Women The value of mothers to society

presenting Levantine, Iraqi & Egyptian women and visual history from a postcolonial lens. requests per DM/email. s Profilbild. L'ORÉAL UNESCO FOR WOMEN IN SCIENCE LEVANT FELLOWSHIPS L'Oréal - UNESCO For Women in Science Levant & Egypt Ceremony! Suchen Sie nach levant woman-Stockbildern in HD und Millionen weiteren lizenzfreien Stockfotos, Illustrationen und Vektorgrafiken in der. language women's radio station and website in the Levant, called 96 NISAA FM (meaning women). Maysoun is empowering women in and through the media​. Fida Abu Turky is economically empowering women in rural areas of the Levant by implementing a grassroots venture capitalist approach adapted for the.

Levant women

language women's radio station and website in the Levant, called 96 NISAA FM (meaning women). Maysoun is empowering women in and through the media​. Women and the religious culture of state temples of the ancient Levant, or: Priestesses, purity, and parturition. Saved in: Bibliographic Details. Published in. Encyclopedia of Jews in the Islamic World, Encyclopedia of Law and Religion, Encyclopedia of Women & Islamic Cultures, Enzyklopädie der Neuzeit Online. Lena Chamamaan. Among Spanish Jews, however, the insertion of the clause was common and considered Gym dating site. It showed on my face. Regrettably, it Lesbian strapon movies be said that the Spanish expulsion and the changes that followed it brought significant improvement in the expectations and treatment of women. Dia Toutingi. On the one hand, Czech bitch 4 led to an encounter between the Jews who had left Spain and Portugal and the traditions of Ashkenaz, North Africa, Italy and the Orient; it also led to many personal Male naked news, sundered families, and other disasters, which left women Levant women Asian and white lesbians and widows. Widad Kawar b. The Cheating wives porn sites mandate of Syria and Lebanon — was called the Levant states.

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Zein Al-Sharaf Talal. Asma al-Ghul. Marie el-Khoury. Rania Kurdi. Anissa Rawda Najjar. Dima Khatib. Joelle Behlok. Salwa Nassar.

Nisreen Faour. Saniya Habboub. Maya Zankoul. Marie al-Khazen. Mai Masri. Angela Jurdak Khoury. Hala Shawkat. Wadad Makdisi Cortas.

Daniella Rahme. Sulaf Fawakherji. Nadine Wilson Njeim. Rosarita Tawil. Tarab Abdul Hadi. Kamilya Jubran. Nadine Labaki. Suzan Najm Aldeen.

Mervat Salman. Rim Banna. Hana Shalabi. Widad Nabi. Zulaikha Abu Risha. Salma Jayyusi. Saba Mubarak. Juliet Awwad. Amera Khalif. Raida Abdallah Bader.

Jaklein Al-Duqom. Iliana Biridakis. Mais Hamdan. Nadia Al-Hindi. Mira Ghniem. Tatiana Al-Najar. Malak El-Nasser. Hala El-Moughrabi.

Dia Toutingi. Arda Kalpakian. Zeina Mina. May Sardouk. Larissa Chouaib. Amal Naseer. Marie Jubran. Yolande Labaki.

Mqboola Chalak. Marie Seurat. Thanaa Debsi. Lena Chamamaan. Abeer Issa. Balqis Sidawi. Seta Manoukian. Talita Baqlah.

Huzaima bint Nasser. Iman de Jordania. Marie 'Ajami. Hana Majaj. Giselle Khoury. Samar Nassar. Razan Taha. Queen Rania of Jordan b. Queen Noor of Jordan b.

Alia al-Hussein Zein al-Sharaf Talal Princess Haya bint Al Hussein b. Princess Iman bint Abdullah b.

Princess Salma bint Al Abdullah b. Princess Aisha bint Hussein b. Princess Sarvath al-Hassan b. Princess Alia bint Hussein b.

The birth of a daughter is not seen as a blessing. Another outstanding phenomenon in the sixteenth century is the early age at which girls married.

Despite the fact that in The legal corpus of Jewish laws and observances as prescribed in the Torah and interpreted by rabbinic authorities, beginning with those of the Mishnah and Talmud.

While it might be that this is connected to the strong need for continuity which characterized the generations nearest the expulsion, it may also be that marriage at an early age was thought to be a safe means of keeping away from sin.

The betrothal of minor daughters relieved their parents of the constant tension involved in preserving their innocence and modesty.

Although at the time there was also a tendency to marry sons off at an early age, a father might not betroth his minor son, and the betrothal of a son below thirteen years of age was not valid.

This did not apply to daughters. In a society where the best a woman could hope for was to marry and become a mother, it is obvious that her father would see it as his duty, not just as his right, to marry off his daughter early.

It was expected of her that after the marriage took place she would adapt to her new life as women had always done. Often, conditions changed and one of the sides could not uphold its financial commitments.

In each of the instances, the young girl needed a get so that she could remarry, and this made her vulnerable to extortion.

The sources demonstrate another phenomenon: an increase in ill-considered betrothals made while drunk or in levity. This indicates an atmosphere of disregard for the fate of the women and exploitation of the power that the law granted to fathers in the belief that they would use it for the good of their daughters and their families.

Some scholars believe that Muslim society, in which betrothals of minors were common, influenced Jewish communities in Arab-speaking countries.

But even if the surrounding environment had an influence, the results were nevertheless completely different for Jewish women.

According to Islam, a girl married at an early age could appear before the kadi on reaching maturity and sue for the retroactive termination of her marriage.

This was easily done, requiring only a financial arrangement between the families. But according to Jewish law, the annulment of a marriage—the receiving of a get —was possible only if the husband was willing and any demand for a divorce could serve as an opening for extortion and extended deliberations.

Despite the tireless efforts of decisors to find a solution for every instance of doubtful betrothal usually by seeking a technical defect in the betrothal that would allow for annulment , this was not always possible.

A get given under duress, or a get that a man claims to have given under duress, is not valid Codification of basic Jewish Oral Law; edited and arranged by R.

Judah ha-Nasi c. Mishnah Yevamot Often, legitimate claims against the husband were not investigated. Even when it was obvious to the judges that the woman was suffering, that her husband was abusing her or that there were other justifiable causes, they could not release her from the marriage in his stead.

The man had to do this himself, of his own free will. The sixteenth-century rabbis were very strict in this matter. The Moses ben Maimon Rambam , b.

Although in sixteenth-century Palestine there were some rabbis who felt that a wife should not be as a captive to her husband and that it was possible to compel the husband to grant a divorce in certain cases, they were very much in the minority and won no support from their colleagues.

In cases like these, the desire to reach a compromise between the two prevailed, and it is often the wife who was required to be more compliant and tolerant.

As a result, women who had no rich, supportive families to back them economically, psychologically or socially, had almost no hope of obtaining a get without giving up all they possessed.

Another focus for halakhic debate was the issue of childless women who sued for divorce, wishing to try their luck with another husband.

Taken at face value, this verse is simply a blessing that God gives to humans, both male and female. Also, despite the fact that the words are spoken in the plural, the rabbis interpreted them as though the A biblical or rabbinic commandment; also, a good deed.

As a result, any childless man could divorce his wife without her consent or take another wife while still being married to the first, in order to try to have children with another woman, claiming that he was required to fulfill the mitzvah.

However, the wife, who was not commanded to fulfill the mitzvah of procreation, could not sue for divorce and certainly could not obtain a get with this justification.

The sixteenth-century rabbis, led by R. Joseph Caro of Safed — , determined that if a husband wished to see whether he could have children with a second or even a third wife, he was permitted to do so, while his first wife had to wait and was forbidden to marry anyone else.

Indeed, polygamy was much more common among the Jewish communities in Palestine and Egypt than was at one time thought. This was almost certainly due to the influence of Muslim society.

These edicts became the foundation of Jewish family life. In nearly every standard Marriage document in Aramaic dictating husband's personal and financial obligations to his wife.

In other words, only if his wife had no children for five or ten years, as stipulated in the clause, would he be allowed to take a second wife. Among Spanish Jews, however, the insertion of the clause was common and considered customary.

When the new immigrants came to Palestine and Egypt, some of them wished to be released from their vow and contractual clause in order to take another wife; it seems that the local rabbis acceded to their request in nearly every case.

As for Jews from Spain and other communities, who agreed to a contractual clause or swore that they would not marry two wives, the local rabbis accommodated them as well, finding pretexts or various technical errors in the wording of the clause in the ketubbah which allowed them to marry an additional wife or, alternatively, to divorce the first wife against her will.

Alongside those women who objected strenuously to taking a rival wife into their homes and sued for a get and the monetary settlement stipulated in their ketubbah, there were many others who were won over by their husbands and agreed to live with their rivals.

Others were presented with a fait accompli with which they had to come to terms as best they could. Usually the wife made her consent conditional upon separate living quarters.

This condition had great significance in Eastern reality, in which several families lived around one courtyard or entranceway and used the same outhouses, oven and well.

If rival wives were unwilling to live together peaceably, daily life might become an ordeal. Thus the rabbis had to deal with many quarrels between rival wives about the use of common utensils or a jointly-owned serving woman, or because one of them, jealous of the other, informed on her.

In one instance, a woman who at first agreed to live with her rival later complained that her husband was having sexual relations with her rival in her presence and demanded a separate apartment of her own.

Her husband denied the accusations, claiming that each woman had her own room and had to be content with that. Often, the husband was the focus of tension and jealousy between the wives, but when he was absent for an extended period or when he died, all the old resentments were suddenly forgotten and we find that the women cooperated so as to preserve their joint economic interests.

As stated above, the The legal corpus of Jewish laws and observances as prescribed in the Torah and interpreted by rabbinic authorities, beginning with those of the Mishnah and Talmud.

By their very nature, they tell of problems that arose and of the legal deliberations, rather than normative, routine life.

Even so, a few details come to light from several descriptions by travelers, letters, appeals to various authorities, and rabbinical Halakhic decisions written by rabbinic authories in response to questions posed to them.

She spent much of her time doing housework such as cleaning, caring for the children, sewing and preparing food: grinding flour, kneading, preparing wine and baking, sometimes in a common courtyard and sometimes in a more distant community oven.

Only a poor selection of utensils was available to her and because these were so expensive, they were passed down as an inheritance or given as gifts to dear friends.

Copper utensils were especially precious and were used only by wealthy families, while the poor had to make do with pottery.

In Cairo, Safed, Jerusalem and cities throughout the region, families lived in rooms or small apartments around a courtyard or joint entranceway.

Routine home activities such as drawing water from the well, cooking in the common oven and using the common outhouses in the courtyard, were performed outside the living quarters.

Carrying water for domestic use was not a simple matter, especially in years of drought. Neither was the weekly laundry day, which took place at the local spring, from which the laundry was carried home and spread on the roof to dry.

Many women, especially the poorer ones, also contributed to the family income. However, wealthy women had slaves or servants, and their lives were undoubtedly much easier.

The crowded living conditions and the common courtyards allowed for cooperation, communal labor, everyday conversation and exchange of visits.

The conditions even allowed for meetings between the sexes. But the courtyard was also a hothouse for gossip.

Women spied on each other and there were many instances of jealousy and informing among neighbors. There was virtually no privacy. In order to protect the moral character of the community, and with the encouragement of rabbis and public figures, surveillance and informing were common.

Slander shook many marriages. The conditions allowed inquisitive neighbors to spy on every deviation from the norm and to report them to the general public.

Despite the overcrowding and lack of privacy, the various sources show that in practice, deviations from accepted norms were fairly common, though the rabbis of the generation complained bitterly about them.

In the reality that was created, that of an immigrant society, it was hard for a normative society to impose its norms on the individual.

Moreover, in Syria, Palestine and Egypt, women had the option of turning to the Muslim courts, which deprived the rabbis of much of their power base.

Not only did Jews in general go to the kadi for various civil matters and find him sympathetic, but many women did so to circumvent the strict laws of marriage and inheritance or to obtain a get from a recalcitrant husband.

Muslim religious law benefits women more than Jewish law in certain cases, and even if a woman were not equal to a man, she still had a right to some of the inheritance.

Sometimes a threat from a woman or her family to go to the kadi was all it took to make a husband change his behavior and the rabbinic judges adopt a more flexible position on financial and personal matters.

Throughout almost their entire lives, women were under the guardianship of a man—a father, husband or brother. Laws, edicts and customs restricted their activities.

Even when women owned property—and usually this was property they inherited or received as a gift—their husbands managed their affairs. Widowhood was practically the only situation where women won their freedom.

This was particularly significant for wealthy women: as affluent widows, they were not only recognized as legal entities in their own right, but also won status and respect in their communities.

Widows and divorced women received their Marriage document in Aramaic dictating husband's personal and financial obligations to his wife.

They left the guardianship of their father, brothers or husbands. Now they were older and could make decisions independently, manage their assets, bequeath or give them as gifts, or even choose a new husband.

Information about them comes mostly from legal deliberations following complaints by relatives and inheritors who wanted to undermine their rights.

The responsa literature shows that many husbands, prior to their death, appointed their wives as guardians of their assets and their children, demonstrating trust in the abilities and skills of their wives, who in many cases gained the support of the religious courts.

Nearly every woman in the period under discussion had several marriage cycles. Divorce was not a stigma and divorced women apparently had no problem in remarrying.

They were a prime target for malicious gossip and lawsuits by various inheritors. Therefore even the affluent among them, who seemingly could stand on their own, chose to remarry, thus absolving themselves of responsibility and saving themselves the trouble of dealing with the public.

Because they now owned money or property, they could set demands or conditions that benefited them. Upon remarrying, they could set a pre-condition that a certain portion of their assets would remain their own to use as they wished.

Their names appear in the legal discussions dealing with wills, donations and gifts to various institutions and communities. In addition to widows, we find that many women expressed their independence by being involved in various kinds of economic activity.

First and foremost, many women were involved in real estate transactions: they rented or paid rent on houses, bought, sold and renovated their property.

They did not hesitate to confront their opponents on rights to the house or a part of it; when necessary, they unhesitatingly appealed to the Muslim courts.

These women were not always wealthy; they were mostly members of the middle class and sometimes poorer women, who would rent out a room or attic in their homes to support themselves.

Another, relatively safe, way to invest money was to lend it with interest, whether to Jews or gentiles. Another accepted possibility was to deposit the money with an honest and knowledgeable man who would invest it for them in the best way available, so that they would be able to enjoy the dividends.

The common factor in these three activities is that the women needed no special professional training and that they could conduct them from their homes in relative privacy.

Jewish women in the east, especially those who did not own much property, also took their place in economic life in other ways, mostly as merchants, dealing primarily in woven wool, linen or silk, agricultural products, wine, olive oil, spices, foodstuffs or vegetables.

These were not large-scale businesses: most of the women were peddlers or owned a modest stall in the market.

Alongside them were craftswomen or professional women. The rabbis of Safed, for example, discussed the case of a woman who owned an iron-welding factory and quarreled with her partner.

In Egypt, women raised civet cats, whose musk was used in perfume-making. Women made wines and cheeses; some worked as agents, healers, and of course as weavers, seamstresses and spinners, work that was not restricted to women.

Levant Women Video

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In the 13th and 14th centuries, the term levante was used for Italian maritime commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean, including Greece, Anatolia , Syria-Palestine , and Egypt, that is, the lands east of Venice.

As a name for the contemporary region, several dictionaries consider Levant to be archaic today. The Levant has been described as the "crossroads of western Asia , the eastern Mediterranean, and northeast Africa ", [18] and the "northwest of the Arabian plate ".

They are often referred to as Levantines. The term Levant appears in English in , and originally meant the East or "Mediterranean lands east of Italy".

Most notably, "Orient" and its Latin source oriens meaning "east", is literally "rising", deriving from Latin orior "rise".

The notion of the Levant has undergone a dynamic process of historical evolution in usage, meaning, and understanding.

While the term "Levantine" originally referred to the European residents of the eastern Mediterranean region, it later came to refer to regional "native" and "minority" groups.

The term became current in English in the 16th century, along with the first English merchant adventurers in the region; English ships appeared in the Mediterranean in the s, and the English merchant company signed its agreement " capitulations " with the Ottoman Sultan in At this time, the Far East was known as the "Upper Levant".

In early 19th-century travel writing , the term sometimes incorporated certain Mediterranean provinces of the Ottoman empire , as well as independent Greece and especially the Greek islands.

In 19th-century archaeology, it referred to overlapping cultures in this region during and after prehistoric times, intending to reference the place instead of any one culture.

The French mandate of Syria and Lebanon — was called the Levant states. Today, "Levant" is the term typically used by archaeologists and historians with reference to the history of the region.

Scholars have adopted the term Levant to identify the region due to it being a "wider, yet relevant, cultural corpus" that does not have the "political overtones" of Syria-Palestine.

Archaeologists seeking a neutral orientation that is neither biblical nor national have used terms such as Levantine archaeology and archaeology of the Southern Levant.

While the usage of the term "Levant" in academia has been restricted to the fields of archeology and literature, there is a recent attempt to reclaim the notion of the Levant as a category of analysis in political and social sciences.

The largest religious group in the Levant are the Muslims and the largest cultural-linguistic group are Arabs , due to the Muslim conquest of the Levant in the 7th century and subsequent Arabization of the region.

Until the establishment of the modern State of Israel in , Jews lived throughout the Levant alongside Muslims and Christians; since then, almost all have been expelled from their homes and sought refuge in Israel.

Armenians mostly belong to the Armenian Apostolic Church. There are also Circassians , Turks , Samaritans , and Nawars. In addition, this region has a number of sites that are of religious significance , such as Al-Aqsa Mosque , [42] the Church of the Holy Sepulchre , [43] and the Western Wall [44] in Jerusalem.

In addition to the varieties normally grouped together as "Levantine", a number of other varieties and dialects of Arabic are spoken in the Levant area, such as Levantine Bedawi Arabic and Mesopotamian Arabic.

Among the languages of Israel , the official language is Hebrew ; Arabic was until July 19, , also an official language. Of the languages of Cyprus , the majority language is Greek, followed by Turkish in the north.

Two minority languages are recognized: Armenian, and Cypriot Maronite Arabic , a hybrid of mostly medieval Arabic vernaculars with strong influence from contact with Greek, spoken by approximately people.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Region in the Eastern Mediterranean. For other uses, see Levantine and Levant disambiguation.

Not to be confused with Levante or Levent. Countries and regions of the Levant in the broad, historic meaning equivalent to the Eastern Mediterranean [1].

Countries of the Levant in 20th century usage [2]. Countries and regions sometimes included in the 21st century.

Amman Aleppo Beirut Damascus Jerusalem. See also: Names of the Levant. Regardless of the manner in which the term has come into common use, for a couple of additional reasons it seems clear that the Levant will remain the term of choice.

However, the journal Levant has been published since and since , Ägypten und Levante has also attracted a plethora of papers relating to the archaeology of this region.

In Europe we are used to the late Roman name 'Palestine,' and the designation 'Palestinian Archaeology' has a long history.

In modern times, however, the name 'Palestine' has exclusively become the political designation for a restricted area. Furthermore, in the period this book deals with a region called 'Palestine' did not yet exist.

Also the ancient name 'Canaan' cannot be used as it refers to an older period in history. Designations as: 'The Land s of the Bible' or 'the Holy Land' evoke the suspicion of a theological bias.

Therefore I have joined those who today advocate the designation 'Southern Levant. Nadine Wilson Njeim.

Rosarita Tawil. Tarab Abdul Hadi. Kamilya Jubran. Nadine Labaki. Suzan Najm Aldeen. Mervat Salman. Rim Banna.

Hana Shalabi. Widad Nabi. Zulaikha Abu Risha. Salma Jayyusi. Saba Mubarak. Juliet Awwad. Amera Khalif. Raida Abdallah Bader. Jaklein Al-Duqom.

Iliana Biridakis. Mais Hamdan. Nadia Al-Hindi. Mira Ghniem. Tatiana Al-Najar. Malak El-Nasser. Hala El-Moughrabi.

Dia Toutingi. Arda Kalpakian. Zeina Mina. May Sardouk. Larissa Chouaib. Amal Naseer. Marie Jubran. Yolande Labaki.

Mqboola Chalak. Marie Seurat. Thanaa Debsi. Lena Chamamaan. Abeer Issa. Balqis Sidawi. Seta Manoukian. Talita Baqlah.

Huzaima bint Nasser. Iman de Jordania. Marie 'Ajami. Hana Majaj. Giselle Khoury. Samar Nassar. Razan Taha. Queen Rania of Jordan b. Queen Noor of Jordan b.

Alia al-Hussein Zein al-Sharaf Talal Princess Haya bint Al Hussein b. Princess Iman bint Abdullah b. Princess Salma bint Al Abdullah b.

Princess Aisha bint Hussein b. Princess Sarvath al-Hassan b. Princess Alia bint Hussein b. Sumaya bint El Hassan b. Princess Rym b.

Basma bint Talal b. Huzaima bint Nasser Suha Arafat b. Asma al-Assad b. Anisa Makhlouf Maha Ali b. Hanan Ashrawi b. Naziq al-Abid Leila Shahid b.

Giselle Khoury b. Samiha Khalil May Chidiac b. Majd Izzat al-Chourbaji b. Rima Khalaf b. Bahia Hariri b.

Ola Al-Fares b.

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